Joined: Oct. 2005
Well, if it their identities were exposed, who would be left to teach refrigerator repair in the eastern US?
EDIT: The whole abstracts are worth repeating:
|Viral/Bacterial Attenuation and Its Link to Innate Oncolytic Potential: Implications of the Perfect Original Creation in the Beginning|
Luke Kim,1 Independent Scholar
The Bible tells us that microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses were created by the Lord (Colossians 1:16). Since the discovery of microorganisms, they have been mainly recognized as disease-causing agents. However, most microorganisms are benign (indirectly beneficial) or beneficial to humans or other organisms. For example, recent cancer/molecular biology studies show that many benign or attenuated bacteria/viruses are powerful anti-cancer agents specifically targeting cancer cells while sparing the normal ones. Even pathogenic strains of bacteria and viruses can be attenuated to convert them to oncolytic viruses or bacteria. Currently, some of these oncolytic viruses and bacteria are being used for various stages of clinical trials for anti-cancer therapy.
After the Fall, the Bible (Genesis 3:18) suggests that post-Fall viral/bacterial oncolytic activity may have arisen as a phenotypic extension of preexisting normal viral/bacterial activities (possibly serving a role as apoptosis inducer, activator of cellular signalling pathways, etc.) due to a change to harsh biological environments. Ubiquitousness and persistence of these microbes in the biological ecosystem strongly implicate a beneficial microbe-host interaction in the original creation and subsequent disruption of the beneficial microbe-host interaction after the Fall. Nonetheless, due to their genetic flexibility, some viruses and bacteria today still display some of their original/derivative functions, such as oncolytic activity. The study of beneficial microbe-host interactions will help us comprehend the correct biological view of microorganisms (before and after the Fall) from a biblical perspective.
|Pathogenicity Tools and Mycotoxins: In the Beginning or after the Fall?|
Ira S. Loucks,1 Independent Scholar
Fungi are amazing organisms. As a group, they have colonized practically every ecological niche on earth. Originally created “very good,” certain fungal interactions have degenerated over time resulting in serious human and animal diseases. Fungi are also capable of producing powerful compounds called mycotoxins, which are products of the nonessential processes of secondary metabolism. Mycotoxins are a type of secondary metabolite, and as such are not normally required for normal growth and reproduction. In fact, one particular mycotoxin, ergot alkyloid, may have been the cause of the Salem Witch Trials. Consumption of ergot alkyloid can result in hallucinations, convulsions, and gangrene of the extremities. Other mycotoxins are potent carcinogens, while others are immunosuppressive. However, other secondary metabolites are useful. Many antibiotic drugs including penicillin and cyclosporin are secondary metabolites. Likewise, many cholesterol lowering drugs are based on the “statin” class of secondary metabolites.
Fungi have been important in agriculture for centuries as both commodities and crop pests. Much of our understanding of fungal biology stems from research on plant pathogenic fungi. Since the Fall, many plant-fungal interactions have deteriorated into parasitic and/or pathogenic relationships: biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic interactions. These interactions result in famine and potential contamination of crops with toxins harmful to humans and animals. Also of concern is the expansion of medically relevant fungi. Fungal pathogens are difficult to treat in humans and animals due to the similar biochemistry of fungal and animal systems. Recent research demonstrates a possible mechanism for the rise of animal pathogenesis in fungi: co-opting of environmentally relevant survival mechanisms for survival in the host environment. More research is needed to elucidate the means by which these originally “very good” microorganisms devolved into the destructive pests and pathogens they have become.
I love the way fungi cause diseases in animals and human, but are pests of plants.
Bob (former plant pathologist)
It is fun to dip into the various threads to watch cluelessness at work in the hands of the confident exponent. - Soapy Sam (so say we all)